Hatra is an ancient city in al-Jazira region of Iraq, which lies 290 km northwest of Baghdad and 110 km southwest of Mosul. Founded between the 3rd and 2nd century BC, it became the capital of the first Arab Kingdom. It was built in a circular plan of military tradition with inner and outer walls, while at the same time reinforced by more than 160 towers.
Because of its strategic position, the town prospered and became an important religious and trading centre. In the I-II centuries, Hatra became known as Beit ʾelāhāʾ, House of God, term referenced to the city’s numerous temples, consecrated to the gods of the Greek, Aramean, Mesopotamian and Arabian pantheons.